GLOBAL PACT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
The Parties to the present Pact,
Acknowledging the growing threats to the environment and the need to act in an ambitious and concerted manner at the global levelto better ensure its protection,
Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted in Stockholm on 16 June 1972, the World Charter for Nature adopted on 28 October 1982 and the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, adopted in Rio on 14 June 1992,
Recalling their commitment to the Sustainable Development Goalsadopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 25 September 2015,
Considering in particular the urgency totackle climate changeand recalling the objectives set by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in New York on 9 May 1992 and the Paris Agreement of 12December 2015,
Observing that the planet is facing an unprecedented loss of its biodiversityrequiring urgent action,
Reaffirming the need to ensure, while using natural resources, that ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby preserving the diversity of life on Earth, and contribute to human well-being and the eradication of poverty,
Acknowledging that the global nature of threats to the Earth’s community of life requires that all States cooperate as closely as possible and participate in an international, effective and appropriate action according to their common but differentiated responsibilitiesand respective capabilities, in light of their different national circumstances,
Determined to promote a sustainable developmentthat allows each generation to satisfy its needs without compromising the capability of future generation to meet theirs, while respecting the balance and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem,
Emphasizing the vital role of womenin sustainable development matters and the need to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women,
Conscious of the need to respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights and knowledge of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situation, under their jurisdiction,
Welcoming the vital role of non State actors, including civil society, economic actors, cities, regions and other subnational authorities in the protection of the environment,
Stressing the fundamental importance of scienceand educationfor sustainable development,
Mindful of conducting actions guided by intragenerational and intergenerational equity,
Affirming the need to adopt a common position and principlesthat will inspire and guide the efforts of all to protect and preserve the environment,
Have agreed as follows:
Right to an ecologically sound environment
Every person has the right to live inan ecologically sound environmentadequate for their health, well-being, dignity, culture and fulfilment.
Duty to take care of the environment
Every State or international institution, every person, natural or legal, public or private, has theduty to take care of the environment. To this end, everyone contributesat their own levels to the conservation, protection and restoration of the integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem.
Integration and sustainable development
Parties shall integrate therequirements of environmental protection into the planning and implementationof their policies and national and international activities, especially in order to promote the fight against climate change, the protection of oceans and the maintenance of biodiversity.
They shall pursue sustainable development.To this end, they shall ensure the promotion of public support policies, patterns of production and consumption both sustainable and respectful of the environment.
Intergenerational equityshall guide decisions that may have an impact on the environment.
Present generationsshall ensure that their decisions and actions do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The necessary measures shall be taken to preventenvironmental harm.
The Parties have the duty to ensure that activities under their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environmentsof other Parties or in areas beyond the limits of their national jurisdiction.
They shall take the necessary measures to ensure that an environmental impact assessmentis conducted prior to any decision made to authorize or engage in a project, an activity, a plan, or a program that is likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment.
In particular, States shall keep under surveillance the effectof an above-mentioned project, activity, plan, or program which they authorize or engage in, in view of their obligation of due diligence.
Where there is a risk of serious or irreversible damage, lack of scientific certainty shall notbe used as a reasonfor postponing the adoption of effective and proportionate measures to prevent environmental degradation.
The necessary measures shall be taken to ensure an adequate remediationof environmental damages.
Parties shall immediately notifyother States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effectson the environment of those States. Parties shall promptly cooperate to help concerned States.
Parties shall ensure that prevention, mitigation and remediation costsfor pollution, and other environmental disruptions and degradation are, to the greatest possible extent, borne by their originator.
Access to information
Every person, without being required to state an interest, has a right of access to environmental information held by public authorities.
Public authorities shall, within the framework of their national legislations, collect and make available to the public relevant environmental information.
Every person has the right to participate, at an appropriate stage and while options are still open, to the preparationof decisions, measures, plans, programmes, activities, policies and normative instruments of public authorities that may have a significant effect on the environment.
Access to environmental justice
Parties shall ensure the right of effective and affordable access to administrative and judicial procedures, including redress and remedies, to challenge acts or omissions of public authorities or private persons which contravene environmental law, taking into consideration the provisions of the present Pact.
Education and training
The Parties shall ensure that environmental education, to the greatest possible extent, is taught to members of the younger generationas well as to adults, in order to inspire in everyone a responsible conductin protecting and improving the environment.
The Parties shall ensure the protection of freedom of expression and information in environmental matters. They support the dissemination by mass media of information of an educational nature on ecosystems and on the need to protect and preserve the environment.
Research and innovation
The Parties shall promote, to the best of their ability, the improvement of scientific knowledgeof ecosystems and the impact of human activities.
They shall cooperate through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledgeand by enhancing the development, adaptation, dissemination and transfer of technologiesrespectful of the environment, including innovative technologies.
Role of non-State actors and subnational entities
The Parties shall take the necessary measures to encourage the implementation of this Pact by non-State actors and subnational entities, including civil society, economic actors, cities and regionstaking into account their vital rolein the protection of the environment.
Effectiveness of environmental norms
The Parties have the duty to adopt effective environmental laws, and to ensure their effective and fair implementation and enforcement.
The Parties shall take necessary measures to maintain and restore the diversity and capacity of ecosystems and human communities to withstand environmental disruptions and degradation and to recover and adapt.
The Parties and their sub-national entities refrain from allowingactivities or adopting norms that have the effect of reducingthe global level of environmental protection guaranteed by current law.
In order to conserve, protect and restore the integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem and community of life, Parties shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of global partnershipfor the implementation of the provisions of the present Pact.
States shall take pursuant to their obligations under international law all feasible measures to protect the environment in relation to armed conflicts.
Diversity of national situations
The special situation and needsof developing countries, particularly the least developedand those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special attention.
Account shall be taken, where appropriate, of the Parties’ common but differentiated responsibilitiesand respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.
Monitoring of the implementation of the Pact
A compliance mechanismto facilitate implementation of, and to promote compliance with, the provisions of the present Pact is hereby established.
This mechanism consists of a Committee of independent expertsand focuses on facilitation. It operates in a transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive manner. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national circumstances and capabilities of the Parties.
One yearafter the entry into force of the present Pact, the Depositary shall convene a meeting of the Partieswhich will establish the modalities and proceduresby which the Committeeshall exercise its functions.
Two yearsafter the Committee takes office, and at a frequency to be determined by the meeting of the Parties, not exceeding four years, each Party shall report to the Committee on its progress in implementing the provisions of the Pact.
The Secretariat of the present Pact shall be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations[or the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program].
The Secretary-General [or the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program] convenes in as much as necessary meeting of Parties.
Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession
The present Pact shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and international organizations. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from XXX to XXX and shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it shall cease to be open for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Coming into force
The present Pact shall enter into forcethree months after the date of depositwith the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the XX instrument of ratification, approval, acceptance or accession.
For each State and international organization ratifying, approving, accepting or acceding to the present Pact after the deposit of the XX instrument of ratification or accession, the Pact shall enter into force three months after the date of depositby that State of its instrument of ratification or accession.
On the expiry of a period of three yearsfrom the date of entry into force of this Treaty in respect of a Party, that Party may at any time denounce it by written notificationto the Depositary.
Such denunciation shall take effect on the expiry of a period of one year from the date of receiptby the Depositary of such notification, or on such later date as may be specified in such notification.
The original of this Treaty, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.